Putting the by-products vegetable oil refinement to productive use
The food industry often refines vegetable oils. Deodorization is the final step in the refining process. It removes various undesirable substances from the vegetable oil, for example, ingredients that can lend it an off-odor or off-flavor. The process of refining vegetable oil leaves by-products that have hardly been used to date. They contain many valuable bioactive compounds. Recovering these by-products with efficient and cost-effective technologies is a challenge.
Ecofriendly processes for recovering bio-based products
The IRODDI project aims to develop ecofriendly methods of recovering new bio-based products from residual streams of the deodorization process. These new products are expected to provide an alternative to conventional biodiesel production. They include:
- biocompatible and ecofriendly surfactants that are more soluble in cold water (created by chemically neutralizing free fatty acids with ecofriendly ionic liquids)
- biodegradable base oils that can be used straightaway to formulate biolubricants (created by enzymatically esterifying free fatty acids with glycerol)
- sustainable polyols for producing polyurethane (created by chemically co-valorizing base oils produced via the enzymatic esterification of free fatty acids) for the adhesives and cosmetics industries
Biolubricant sourced from deodorized distillate
Lubricants are essential to machining processes. Practically all branches of industry require some type of engine, gear, hydraulic or metalworking lubricating oil. Biolubricants can replace mineral oil-based lubricants to make manufacturing operations more sustainable and ecofriendly. The idea behind the IRODDI project is to put a previously unused raw material, deodorized distillate, to use to make sustainable biolubricants.
The Fraunhofer IVV has set out to develop an esterification process that uses enzymes called lipases to neutralize deodorized distillates that contain large quantities of free fatty acids. It would enable companies to manufacture products tailored to suit the lubricant industry. Glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel processing, is used for esterification. This mixture has beneficial tribological and emulsifying properties, so the proposed enzymatic process will yield an innovative, high-quality product. The obtained base oil may be used immediately, without further modification, as the base medium for formulating biodegradable lubricant systems.